|Edward Hicks (April 4, 1780 – August 23, 1849) was an American folk painter, a distinguished minister of the Society of Friends, and he also became a Quaker icon because of his paintings.|
Edward Hicks was born in his grandfather's mansion at Attleboro (now Langhorne), in Bucks County, Pennsylvania. His parents were Anglican. Isaac Hicks, his father, was a Loyalist who was left without any money after the British defeat in the Revolutionary War. After young Edward's mother died when he was eighteen months old, Matron Elizabeth Twining – a close friend of his mother's – raised him as one of her own. She also taught him the Quaker beliefs, which had a great effect on the rest of his life.
At the age of thirteen Hicks began an apprenticeship to coach makers William and Henry Tomlinson. He stayed with them for seven years, during which he learned the craft of coach painting. In 1800 he left the Tomlinson firm to earn his living independently as a house and coach painter, and in 1801 he moved to Milford to work for Joshua C. Canby, a coach maker.
At this stage of his life Hicks was, as he later wrote in his memoirs, "in my own estimation a weak, wayward young man ... exceedingly fond of singing, dancing, vain amusements, and the company of young people, and too often profanely swearing". Dissatisfied with his life, he started to attend Quaker meetings regularly, and in 1803 he was accepted for membership in the Society of Friends. Later that same year he married a Quaker woman named Sarah Worstall.
In 1812 his congregation recorded him as a minister, and by 1813 he began traveling throughout Philadelphia as a Quaker preacher. To meet the expenses of traveling, and for the support of his growing family, Hicks decided to expand his trade to painting household objects and farm equipment as well as tavern signs. His painting trade was lucrative, but it upset some in the Quaker community, because it contradicted the plain customs they respected. In 1815 Hicks briefly gave up ornamental painting and attempted to support his family by farming, while also continuing with the plain, utilitarian type of painting that his Quaker neighbors thought acceptable. His financial difficulties only increased, as utilitarian painting was less remunerative, and Hicks did not have the experience he needed to cultivate the land, or run a farm primarily on his own.
By 1816, his wife was expecting a fifth child. After a relative of Hicks, at the urging of Hicks' close friend John Comly, talked to him about painting again, Hicks resumed decorative painting. This friendly suggestion saved Hicks from financial disaster, and preserved his livelihood not as a Quaker Minister but as a Quaker artist. Around 1820, Hicks made the first of his many paintings of The Peaceable Kingdom. Hicks' easel paintings were often made for family and friends, not for sale, and decorative painting remained his main source of income.
In 1827 a schism formed within the Religious Society of Friends, between Hicksites (named after Edward Hicks' cousin Elias Hicks) and Orthodox Friends. As new settlers swelled Pennsylvania's Quaker community, many branched off into sects whose differences sometimes conflicted with one another, which greatly discouraged Edward Hicks from continuing to preach. Nonetheless, in his lifetime Hicks was better known as a minister than as a painter.
Quaker beliefs prohibited a lavish life or having excessive quantities of objects or materials. Unable to maintain his work as a preacher and painter at the same time, Hicks transitioned into a life of painting, and he used his canvases to convey his beliefs. He was unconfined by rules of his congregation, and able to freely express what religion could not: the human conception of faith.
Although it is not considered a religious image, Hicks' Peaceable Kingdom exemplifies Quaker ideals. Hicks painted 61 versions of this composition. The animals and children are taken from Isaiah 11:6-8 (also echoed in Isaiah 65:25), including the lion eating straw with the ox. Hicks used his paintings as a way to define his central interest, which was the quest for a redeemed soul. This theme was also from one of his theological beliefs.
Hicks' work was influenced by a specific Quaker belief referred to as the Inner Light. George Fox was the Quaker chief, along with other formulators who established and preached the Inner Light doctrine. Fox explained that along with scriptural knowledge, many individuals achieve salvation by yielding one's self-will to the divine power of Christ and the "Christ within". This "Christ in You" concept was derived from the Bible's Colossians 1:27. Hicks depicted humans and animals to represent the Inner Light's idea of breaking physical barriers (of difference between two individuals) to working and living together in peace. Many of his paintings further exemplify this concept with depictions of Native Americans meeting the settlers of Pennsylvania, with William Penn prominent among them.
Hicks admired Penn as an opponent of British power in America, and he hoped that Penn could help ensure reform. Like Penn, Hicks opposed Britain's hierarchy. Hicks most esteemed Penn for establishing the treaty of Pennsylvania with the Native Americans, because it was a state that strongly fostered the Quaker community.
Edward Hicks (4 avril 1780 - 23 août 1849) était un peintre folk américain, un ministre unique de la Société des amis, et il est également devenu une icône de Quaker à cause de ses peintures. Début de la vie Edward Hicks est né dans le manoir de son grand-père à Attleboro (maintenant Langhorne), dans le comté de Bucks, en Pennsylvanie. Ses parents ...|
Edward Hicks (4. April 1780 - 23. August 1849) war ein amerikanischer Folk-Maler, einem aufstrebenden Minister der Gesellschaft der Freunde, und er wurde auch ein Symbol Quäker wegen seiner Gemälde. Frühes Leben Edward Hicks wurde im Herrenhaus seines Großvaters in Attleboro (jetzt Langhorne), in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, geboren. Seine Eltern wa...|
Edward Hicks (4 Aprile 1780 - 23 agosto 1849) è stato un pittore folk americano, un ministro illustri della Società degli Amici, e divenne anche l'icona di un quacchero a causa dei suoi dipinti. Primi anni Edward Hicks è nato a villa del nonno a Attleboro (ora Langhorne), a Bucks County, Pennsylvania. I suoi genitori erano anglicana. Isaac Hicks, s...|
Edward Hicks (abril 4to, 1780 hasta 08 23, 1849) fue un pintor popular estadounidense, un distinguido ministro de la Sociedad de Amigos, y también se convirtió en un icono de Quaker, debido a sus pinturas. Primeros años Edward Hicks nació en la mansión de su abuelo en Attleboro (ahora Langhorne), en el condado de Bucks, Pennsylvania. Sus padres era...|
Эдвард Хикс (4 апреля 1780 - 23 августа 1849 г.) был американским художником народные, выдающийся министр Общества друзей, и он также стал значок квакеров из-за его картин. Ранняя жизнь Эдвард Хикс родился в особняке деда на Attleboro (ныне Langhorne), в Bucks County, штат Пенсильвания. Его родители были англиканской. Исаак Хикс, его отец, был лоял...|
爱德华希克斯（1780年4月4日 - 1849年8月23日）是美国的民间画家，杰出之友协会部长，而他也成为了奎克的图标，因为他的画。 早期的生活 爱德华希克斯是出生在阿特尔伯勒（现在兰霍恩）在雄鹿县，宾夕法尼亚，他的祖父的豪宅。他的父母是英国圣公会。以撒希克斯，他的父亲，是一个没有钱的英国在革命战争失败后留下勤王。年轻的爱德华的母亲去世后，他18个月大时，护士长伊丽莎白唐宁 - 一个亲密的朋友 - 他的母亲的他提出了自己。她还教给他的贵格会的信仰，其中有一个很大的影响余生。 在十三希克斯岁开始当学徒教练制造商威廉和亨利汤姆林森。他呆在一起，为7年，在此期间，他学会了教练绘画工艺。在1800年，他离开了汤姆林森公司赚取的房子和教练画家自己的独立生活，并在1801年，他移居到米尔福德约书亚C. ...|
Edward Hicks (4 de abril, 1780 - 23 de agosto de 1849) foi um pintor popular americana, um ministro distinto da Sociedade de Amigos, e ele também se tornou um ícone de quaker por causa de suas pinturas. Primeiros anos de vida Edward Hicks nasceu na mansão de seu avô em Attleboro (agora Langhorne), em Bucks County, Pensilvânia. Seus pais eram anglic...|
エドワードヒックス（1780年4月4日 - 1849年8月23日）はアメリカのフォークの画家、フレンズの学会の著名な大臣だった、と彼はまたのため彼の絵画のクエーカーのアイコンとなりました。 初期の人生 エドワードヒックスは、バックスカウンティー、ペンシルベニア州のアトル（現在はラングホーン）で、彼の祖父の邸宅で生まれた。彼の両親は聖公会であった。アイザックヒックス、彼の父親は、独立戦争で英国の敗北の後に任意のお金なしで残っていたロイヤリストていた。彼が18ヶ月歳の時、若いエドワードの母親が死んだ後、婦人エリザベストワイニング - 彼の母親の親友は - 彼女自身の一人として彼を提起。彼女はまた彼に彼の人生の残りの部分に大きな影響を持っていたクエーカーの信仰を、教えた。 thirteenヒックス...||