|Edward Lear (12 May 1812 – 29 January 1888) was an English artist, illustrator, author, and poet, renowned today primarily for his literary nonsense, in poetry and prose, and especially his limericks, a form that he popularised.|
Lear was born into a middle-class family in the village of Holloway, the 21st child of Ann and Jeremiah Lear. He was raised by his eldest sister, also named Ann, 21 years his senior. Ann doted on Lear and continued to mother him until her death, when Lear was almost 50 years of age. Due to the family's failing financial fortune, at age four he and his sister had to leave the family home and set up house together.
Lear suffered from health problems. From the age of six he suffered frequent grand mal epileptic seizures, and bronchitis, asthma, and in later life, partial blindness. Lear experienced his first seizure at a fair near Highgate with his father. The event scared and embarrassed him. Lear felt lifelong guilt and shame for his epileptic condition. His adult diaries indicate that he always sensed the onset of a seizure in time to remove himself from public view. How Lear was able to anticipate them is not known, but many people with epilepsy report a ringing in their ears (tinnitus) or an aura before the onset of a seizure. In Lear's time epilepsy was believed to be associated with demonic possession, which contributed to his feelings of guilt and loneliness. When Lear was about seven he began to show signs of depression, possibly due to the constant instability of his childhood. He suffered from periods of severe depression which he referred to as "the Morbids."
Lear travelled widely throughout his life and eventually settled in Sanremo, on his beloved Mediterranean coast, in the 1870s, at a villa he named "Villa Tennyson." The closest he came to marriage was two proposals, both to the same woman 46 years his junior, which were not accepted. For companions he relied instead on a circle of friends and correspondents, and especially, in later life, on his Albanian Suliot chef, Giorgis, a faithful friend and, as Lear complained, a thoroughly unsatisfactory chef. Another trusted companion in Sanremo was his cat, Foss, who died in 1886 and was buried with some ceremony in a garden at Villa Tennyson. After a long decline in his health, Lear died at his villa in 1888, of the heart disease from which he had suffered since at least 1870. Lear's funeral was said to be a sad, lonely affair by the wife of Dr. Hassall, Lear's physician, not one of Lear's many lifelong friends being able to attend.
Lear is buried in the Foce Cemetery in Sanremo. On his headstone are inscribed these lines about Mount Tomohrit (Albania) from Tennyson's To E.L. [Edward Lear], On His Travels in Greece:
Tomohrit, Athos, all things fair.
With such a pencil, such a pen.
You shadow forth to distant men,
I read and felt that I was there.
Edward Lear was known to introduce himself with his long name: "Mr Abebika kratoponoko Prizzikalo Kattefello Ablegorabalus Ableborinto phashyph" or "Chakonoton the Cozovex Dossi Fossi Sini Tomentilla Coronilla Polentilla Battledore & Shuttlecock Derry down Derry Dumps" which he based on Aldiborontiphoskyphorniostikos.
Lear was already drawing "for bread and cheese" by the time he was aged 16 and soon developed into a serious "ornithological draughtsman" employed by the Zoological Society and then from 1832-36 by the Earl of Derby, who had a private menagerie. His first publication, published when he was 19, was Illustrations of the Family of Psittacidae, or Parrots in 1830. His paintings were well received and he was favourably compared with Audubon.
Lear travelled for three years in Italy from 1837 and published two volumes of illustrations, Illustrated Excursions in Italy, the first of many such books. Lear briefly gave drawing lessons to Queen Victoria, who had been pleased by the Excursions and summoned him to court, leading to some awkward incidents when he failed to observe proper court protocol. Lear then returned to the Mediterranean, wishing to illustrate all points along the coast of that sea. Among other trips, he visited Greece and Egypt in 1848-49, and toured the length of India and Ceylon in 1873-75. While travelling he produced large quantities of coloured wash drawings in a distinctive style, which he worked up back in his studio into oils and watercolours, as well as prints for his books. His landscape style often shows views with strong sunlight, with intense contrasts of colour.
Throughout his life he continued to paint seriously. He had a lifelong ambition to illustrate Tennyson's poems; near the end of his life a volume with a small number of illustrations was published, but his vision for the work was never realized.
In 1846 Lear published A Book of Nonsense, a volume of limericks that went through three editions and helped popularize the form. In 1865 The History of the Seven Families of the Lake Pipple-Popple was published, and in 1867 his most famous piece of nonsense, The Owl and the Pussycat, which he wrote for the children of his patron Edward Stanley, 13th Earl of Derby. Many other works followed.
Lear's nonsense books were quite popular during his lifetime, but a rumour circulated that "Edward Lear" was merely a pseudonym, and the books' true author was the man to whom Lear had dedicated the works, his patron the Earl of Derby. Supporters of this rumour offered as evidence the facts that both men were named Edward, and that "Lear" is an anagram of "Earl".
Lear's nonsense works are distinguished by a facility of verbal invention and a poet's delight in the sounds of words, both real and imaginary. A stuffed rhinoceros becomes a "diaphanous doorscraper". A "blue Boss-Woss" plunges into "a perpendicular, spicular, orbicular, quadrangular, circular depth of soft mud". His heroes are Quangle-Wangles, Pobbles, and Jumblies. His most famous piece of verbal invention, a "runcible spoon" occurs in the closing lines of The Owl and the Pussycat, and is now found in many English dictionaries:
They dined on mince, and slices of quince
Which they ate with a runcible spoon;
And hand in hand, on the edge of the sand,
They danced by the light of the moon,
They danced by the light of the moon.
Though famous for his neologisms, Lear employed a number of other devices in his works in order to defy reader expectations. For example, "Cold Are The Crabs", adheres to the sonnet tradition until the dramatically foreshortened last line.
Limericks are invariably typeset as four plus one lines today, but Lear's limericks were published in a variety of formats. It appears that Lear wrote them in manuscript in as many lines as there was room for beneath the picture. In the first three editions most are typeset as, respectively, two, five, and three lines. The cover of one edition bears an entire limerick typeset in two lines:
There was an Old Derry down Derry, who loved to see little folks merry;
So he made them a book, and with laughter they shook at the fun of that Derry down Derry.
In Lear's limericks the first and last lines usually end with the same word rather than rhyming. For the most part they are truly nonsensical and devoid of any punch line or point. They are completely free of the off-colour humour with which the verse form is now associated. A typical thematic element is the presence of a callous and critical "they". An example of a typical Lear limerick:
There was an Old Man of Aôsta,
Who possessed a large Cow, but he lost her;
But they said, 'Don't you see,
she has rushed up a tree?
You invidious Old Man of Aôsta!'
Lear's self-portrait in verse, How Pleasant to know Mr. Lear, closes with this stanza, a reference to his own mortality:
He reads but he cannot speak Spanish,
He cannot abide ginger-beer;
Ere the days of his pilgrimage vanish,
How pleasant to know Mr. Lear!
Five of Lear's limericks from the Book of Nonsense, in the 1946 Italian translation by Carlo Izzo, were set to music for choir a cappella by Goffredo Petrassi, in 1952.
Edward Lear (12 mai 1812 à 1829 Janvier 1888) était un artiste anglais, illustrateur, auteur et poète, célèbre aujourd'hui, principalement pour ses bêtises littéraire, en poésie et en prose, et surtout ses poèmes humoristiques, un formulaire qu'il a popularisé. Lear est né dans une famille de classe moyenne dans le village de Holloway, l'enfant 21è...|
Edward Lear (12. Mai 1812 - 29. Januar 1888) war ein englischer Künstler, Illustrator, Autor und Dichter, bekannt heute in erster Linie für seine literarischen Unsinn, in Poesie und Prosa, und vor allem seine Limericks, eine Form, dass er populär. Lear wurde in einer bürgerlichen Familie in dem Dorf Holloway, dem 21. Kind von Ann und Jeremiah Lear ...|
Edward Lear (12 maggio 1812 - 29 gennaio 1888) fu un artista inglese, illustratore, scrittore e poeta, noto oggi soprattutto per il suo nonsense letterari, in poesia e prosa, e soprattutto il suo limerick, una forma che ha reso popolare. Lear è nato in una famiglia della classe media nel villaggio di Holloway, il bambino 21 Ann e Geremia Lear. Fu a...|
Edward Lear (12 mayo 1812-29 enero 1888) fue un artista Inglés, ilustrador, escritor y poeta, conocido sobre todo, por su sentido literario, la poesía y la prosa, y sobre todo su quintillas, una forma que él popularizó. Lear nació en una familia de clase media en el pueblo de Holloway, el niño 21 de Ann y Lear Jeremías. Fue criado por su hermana ma...|
Эдвард Лир (12 мая 1812 - 29 января 1888) был английский художник, иллюстратор, писатель и поэт, известный сегодня в первую очередь для его литературной ерунда, в поэзии и прозе, и особенно его частушки, форме, что он популяризировал. Лир родилась в семье среднего класса в деревне Холлоуэй, 21-го ребенка Энн и Иеремии Лира. Он был поднят его старша...|
爱德华李尔（1812年5月12日 - 1888年1月29日）是英国艺术家，插画，作者和诗人，著名的今天，主要是为他的文学废话，在诗歌和散文，尤其是他的打油诗，他推广的形式。 李尔出生于一个中产阶级家庭，在霍洛威，Ann和耶利米李尔21儿童村。他提出了他的大姐，也姓安，21岁的他的高级。安宠爱李尔，并继续他的母亲，直到她去世时，李尔是近50岁的。由于家庭的失败的金融财富，4岁时，他和他的妹妹不得不离开家庭，住在一起。 李尔遭受的健康问题。从六岁，他经常遭受大发作癫痫发作，支气管炎，哮喘，并在以后的生活中，部分失明。李尔经历了他与他的父亲在一个公平的附近海格特的首次检获。事件吓得他和尴尬。李尔觉得他的癫痫状况终身的内疚和羞愧。他成年后的日记表明，他总是感觉到扣押在时间开始从公众视线中删除自己。李...|
Edward Lear (12 de maio de 1812 - 29 de Janeiro de 1888) foi um artista Inglês, ilustrador, autor e poeta, conhecido hoje principalmente para o seu nonsense literário, na poesia e na prosa, e especialmente sua limericks, uma forma que ele popularizou. Lear nasceu em uma família de classe média, na aldeia de Holloway, o filho de Ann e 21 Lear Jeremi...|
エドワードリアは（1812年5月12日 - 1888年1月29日）詩と散文で、主に彼の文学的ナンセンスのためのイギリス人アーティスト、イラストレーター、作家、そして詩人、有名な今日であり、特に彼のリメリック、その彼広まった形。 リアは、ホロウェイ、アンとエレミヤリアの21子どもの村では中流階級の家庭に生まれました。彼は21歳年上、またアンという名前の、彼の姉に育てられた。アンはリアにdotedとリアの年齢のほぼ50歳だった彼女の死、までは母親に彼を続けた。家族の財政の失敗幸運のために、4歳で彼と彼の妹は、家族の家を離れて家を一緒に設定する必要がありました。 リアは、健康上の問題に苦しんだ。六歳から、彼は頻繁に大発作てんかん発作、および気管支炎、喘息、およびそれ以降の生活の中で、部分的な失明を...||