|Émile Henri Bernard (28 April 1868 – 16 April 1941) is known as a Post-Impressionist painter who had artistic friendships with Van Gogh, Gauguin and Eugene Boch, and at a later time, Cézanne. Most of his notable work was accomplished at a young age, in the years 1886 through 1897. He is also associated with Cloisonnism and Synthetism, two late 19th century art movements. Less known is Bernard's literary work, comprising plays, poetry, and art criticism as well as art historical statements that contain first hand information on the crucial period of modern art to which Bernard had contributed.|
Emile Henri Bernard was born in Lille, France in 1868. As in his younger years his sister was sick, Emile was unable to receive much attention from his parents; he therefore stayed with his grandmother, who owned a laundry in Lille, employing more than twenty people. She was one of the greatest supporters of his art. The family moved to Paris in 1878, where Émile attended the Collège Sainte-Barbe.
He began his studies at the École des Arts Décoratifs. In 1884, joined the Atelier Cormon where he experimented with impressionism and pointillism and befriended fellow artists Louis Anquetin and Henri Toulouse-Lautrec. After being suspended from the École des Beaux-Arts for “showing expressive tendencies in his paintings”, he toured Brittany on foot, where he was enamored by the tradition and landscape.
In August 1886, Bernard met Gauguin in Pont-Aven. In this brief meeting, they exchanged little about art, but looked forward to meeting again. Bernard said, looking back on that time, that “my own talent was already fully developed.” He believed that his style did play a considerable part in the development of Gauguin’s mature style.
Bernard spent September 1887 at the coast, where he painted La Grandmère, a portrait of his grandmother. He continued talking with other painters and started saying good things about Gauguin. Bernard went back to Paris, met with Van Gogh, who as we already stated was impressed by his work, found a restaurant to show the work alongside Van Gogh, Anquetin, and Lautrec’s work at the Avenue Clichy. Van Gogh, called the group the School of Petit-Boulevard.
One year later, Bernard set out for Pont-Aven by foot and saw Gauguin. Their friendship and artistic relationship grew strong quickly. By this time Bernard had developed many theories about his artwork and what he wanted it to be. He stated that he had “a desire to [find] an art that would be of the most extreme simplicity and that would be accessible to all, so as not to practice its individuality, but collectively…” Gauguin was impressed by Bernard’s ability to verbalize his ideas.
1888 was a seminal year in the history of Modern art. From October 23rd, until December 23rd Paul Gauguin and Vincent Van Gogh worked together in Arles. Gauguin had brought his new style from Pont-Aven exemplified in Vision of the Sermon, a powerful work of visual symbolism of which he had already sent a sketch to Van Gogh in September.
He also brought along Bernard's Le Pardon de Pont-Aven which he had exchanged for one of his paintings and which he used to decorate the shared workshop. see in: (ref. Druick 2001) This work was equally striking and illustrative of the style Émile Bernard had already acquainted Van Gogh with when he sent him a batch of drawings in August, so much so that Van Gogh made a watercolor copy of the "Pardon" (December 1888) which he sent to his brother, to recommend Bernard's new style to be promoted. The following year Van Gogh still vividly remembered the painting in his written portrait of Emile Bernard in a letter to his sister Wil (Dec.10,1889):"...it was so original I absolutely wanted to have a copy."
Bernard's style was effective and coherent (see:woman at haystacks,) as can also be seen from the comparison of the two "portraits" Bernard and Gauguin sent to Van Gogh at the end of September 1888 at the latter's request: self-portraits -at Gauguin's initiative- each integrating a small portrait of the other in the background. (ref. Druick 2001)
One of Emile Bernard's drawings from the August batch ("...a lane of trees near the sea with two women talking in the foreground and some strollers" – Vincent Van Gogh in a letter to Bernard – Arles 1888) also appears to have inspired the work Van Gogh and Gauguin did on the Allée des Alyscamps in Arles.
In 1891 he joined a group of Symbolist painters that included Odilon Redon and Ferdinand Hodler. In 1893 he started traveling, to Egypt, Spain and Italy and after that his style became more eclectic. He returned to Paris in 1904 and remained there for the remainder of his life. He taught at the École des Beaux-Arts before he died in 1941.
Bernard theorized a style of painting with bold forms separated by dark contours which became known as cloisonnism. His work showed geometric tendencies which hinted at influences of Paul Cézanne, and he collaborated with Paul Gauguin and Vincent van Gogh.
Many say that it was Bernard’s friend Anquetin, who should receive the credit for this “closisonisme” technique. During the spring of 1887, Bernard and Anquetin “turned against Neo-Impressionism.” It is also likely that Bernard was influenced by the works he had seen of Cézanne. But Bernard says “When I was in Brittany, I was inspired by “everything that is superfluous in a spectacle is covering it with reality and occupying our eyes instead of our mind. You have to simplify the spectacle in order to make some sense of it. You have, in a way, to draw its plan.”
"The first means that I use is to simplify nature to an extreme point. I reduce the lines only to the main contrasts and I reduce the colors to the seven fundamental colors of the prism. To see a style and not an item. To highlight the abstract sense and not the objective. And the second means were to appeal to the conception and to the memory by extracting yourself from any direct atmosphere. Appeal more to internal memory and conception. There I was expressing myself more, it was me that I was describing, although I was in front of the nature. There was an invisible meaning under the mute shape of exteriority."
Symbolism and religious motifs appear in both Bernard and Gauguin's work. During the summer of 1889, Bernard was alone in Le Pouldu and began to paint many religious canvasses. He was upset that he had to do commercial work at the same time that he wanted to create these pieces. Bernard wrote about his relationship with the style of symbolism in many letters, articles, and statements. He said that it was of a Christian essence, divine language. Bernard believed that it “It is the invisible express by the visible,” and those previous attempts of religious symbolism failed. That period of symbolism represented the nature of beauty, but did not find the truth in the beauty. Art until the renaissance was based on the invisible rather than the visible, the idea, not the shapes or concrete. The history of the painting of symbols was spiritual. Everything, meaning symbols, were forgotten with the paganist ideas and doctrines. That is what Bernard was attempting to accomplish with the rebirth of symbolism in 1890. In his idea of the new symbolism, he concentrated on maintaining a grounded art, more authentic in Bernard’s mind meant reducing impressionism, not creating an optical trip like Georges-Pierre Seurat, but simplifying the actual symbol.
His concept was that through ideas, not technique, the truth is found.
émile Henri Bernard (28 Avril 1868 au 1816 Avril 1941) est connu comme peintre post-impressionniste qui a eu des amitiés artistiques avec Van Gogh, Gauguin et Eugène Boch, et à un moment plus tard, Cézanne. La plupart de son travail remarquable a été accompli à un jeune âge, dans les 1886 ans à travers 1897. Il est également associé à cloisonnisme ...|
émile Bernard Henri (28. April 1868 bis 16 April 1941) wird als Post-Impressionist Maler, der künstlerische Freundschaften mit Van Gogh, Gauguin und Eugène Boch gekannt hatte, und zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt, Cézanne. Die meisten seiner bemerkenswerten Arbeit wurde in einem jungen Alter erreicht, in den Jahren 1886 bis 1897. Er ist auch mit Cloison...|
Henri émile Bernard (28 aprile 1868-16 aprile 1941) è conosciuto come un pittore post-impressionista che aveva amicizie artistiche con Van Gogh, Gauguin ed Eugène Boch, e in un secondo momento, Cézanne. La maggior parte del suo lavoro notevole è stato compiuto in giovane età, negli anni 1886 attraverso 1897. Egli è anche associato con Cloisonnism e...|
émile Henri Bernard (28 abril 1868 hasta 16 abril 1941) es conocido como un pintor post-impresionista que tenía amistades artísticas con Van Gogh, Gauguin y Eugene Boch, y en un momento posterior, Cézanne. La mayor parte de su notable trabajo se llevó a cabo a una edad temprana, en los años 1886 a través de 1897. él también está asociada con cloiso...|
Эмиль Бернар Анри (28 апреля 1868 - 16 апреля 1941) известен как пост-импрессионистов художник, который был художественным дружба с Ван Гога, Гогена и Евгения Бош, а в более позднее время, Сезанна. Большинство из его заметных работ была выполнена в молодом возрасте, в период 1886 по 1897 года. Он также связан с Cloisonnism и синтетизма, два движени...|
埃米尔· 亨利· 伯纳德（4月28日1868年 - 1941年4月16日）被称为后印象派画家梵高，高更和尤金Boch艺术友谊，并在以后的时间，塞尚。他显着的工作完成在年轻的时候，在1886年到1897年。他还与的Cloisonnism和Synthetism，19世纪后期的艺术运动。鲜为人知的是伯纳德的文学作品，包括戏剧，诗歌，艺术批评以及艺术历史报表，包含第一手资料，对现代艺术的关键时期，其中陈智思作出了贡献。 出生于1868年在法国里尔，埃米尔· 亨利· 伯纳德。在他的年轻岁月，他的妹妹生病了，埃米尔是无法接收到来自他的父母非常重视，因此他与他的祖母，谁拥有一个在里尔的洗衣，从业人员超过20万人住。她是他的艺术的最大支持者之一。 1878年，...|
émile Henri Bernard (28 de abril de 1868 - 16 Abril 1941) é conhecido como um pintor pós-impressionista que tinha amizades artísticas com Van Gogh, Gauguin e Eugene Boch, e em um momento posterior, Cézanne. A maior parte de seu trabalho notável foi realizado em uma idade jovem, nos anos 1886 através de 1897. Ele também está associada com cloisonnis...|
エミールアンリベルナール（1868年4月28日 - 1941年4月16日）は、セザンヌ、ゴッホ、ゴーギャン、ユージンボッホの芸術的な友情を持っていたポスト印象派の画家と呼ばれ、後でされています。彼の注目すべき作業のほとんどは1897年2049年1886年に、若い年齢で達成された。彼はまたクロイゾニズムとサンテティスム、二つの19世紀後半の芸術運動に関連付けられています。あまり知られてバーナードの文学作品であって、演劇、詩、美術批評と同様にバーナードが貢献したように現代美術の重要な時期に最初の手の情報が含まれている芸術、歴史的事実である。 エミールアンリバーナードは1868年にリール、フランスで生まれました。弟年間で彼の妹が病気になったとして、エミールは彼の両親から多くの注目を受けることが...||