| Eugene DelacroixFrom the very beginnings of his career as an artist, Delacroix was regarded as the leader in the French Romantic School of art. His work was as far from that of Ingres, another famous artist of the day, as they could possibly be. Whereas Ingres followed in the footsteps of Classical works of art, Delacroix was fascinated by more contemporary painters such as Rubens and other Renaissance painters. It was them he followed instead of the growing Neoclassical movement.
|Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (26 April 1798 – 13 August 1863) was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school. Delacroix's use of expressive brushstrokes and his study of the optical effects of colour profoundly shaped the work of the Impressionists, while his passion for the exotic inspired the artists of the Symbolist movement. A fine lithographer, Delacroix illustrated various works of William Shakespeare, the Scottish writer Sir Walter Scott and the German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.|
In contrast to the Neoclassical perfectionism of his chief rival Ingres, Delacroix took for his inspiration the art of Rubens and painters of the Venetian Renaissance, with an attendant emphasis on color and movement rather than clarity of outline and carefully modeled form. Dramatic and romantic content characterized the central themes of his maturity, and led him not to the classical models of Greek and Roman art, but to travel in North Africa, in search of the exotic. Friend and spiritual heir to Théodore Géricault, Delacroix was also inspired by Byron, with whom he shared a strong identification with the "forces of the sublime", of nature in often violent action.
However, Delacroix was given neither to sentimentality nor bombast, and his Romanticism was that of an individualist. In the words of Baudelaire, "Delacroix was passionately in love with passion, but coldly determined to express passion as clearly as possible."
Delacroix was born at Charenton (Saint-Maurice, Val-de-Marne), in Île-de-France near Paris.
There is reason to believe that his father, Charles-François Delacroix, was infertile at the time of Eugène's conception and that his real father was Talleyrand, who was a friend of the family and successor of C. Delacroix as minister of the foreign affairs, and whom the adult Eugène resembled in appearance and character. Throughout his career as a painter, he was protected by Talleyrand, who served successively the Restoration and king Louis-Philippe, and ultimately as ambassador of France in Great Britain, and later by Talleyrand's grandson, Charles Auguste Louis Joseph, duc de Morny, half-brother of Napoleon III and speaker of the French house of commons.
His early education was at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, where he steeped himself in the classics and won awards for drawing. In 1815 he began his training with Pierre-Narcisse Guérin in the neoclassical style of Jacques-Louis David. An early church commission, The Virgin of the Harvest, (1819), displays a Raphaelesque influence, but another such commission, The Virgin of the Sacred Heart, (1821), evidences a freer interpretation. It precedes the influence of the more colorful and rich style of the Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), and fellow French artist Théodore Géricault (1791-1824), whose works marked an introduction to Romanticism in art.
The impact of Géricault's The Raft of the Medusa was profound, and stimulated Delacroix to produce his first major painting, The Barque of Dante, which was accepted by the Paris Salon in 1822. The work caused a sensation, and was largely derided by the public and officialdom, yet was purchased by the State for the Luxembourg Galleries; the pattern of widespread opposition to his work, countered by a vigorous, enlightened support, would continue throughout his life. Two years later he again achieved popular success for his The Massacre at Chios.
Chios and Missolonghi
Massacre at Chios (1824), LouvreDelacroix's painting of the massacre at Chios shows sick, dying Greek civilians about to be slaughtered by the Turks. One of several paintings he made of this contemporary event, it expresses sympathy for the Greek cause in their war of independence against the Turks, a popular sentiment at the time for the French people. Delacroix was quickly recognized as a leading painter in the new Romantic style, and the picture was bought by the state. His depiction of suffering was controversial however, as there was no glorious event taking place, no patriots raising their swords in valour as in David's Oath of the Horatii, only a disaster. Many critics deplored the painting's despairing tone; the artist Antoine-Jean Gros called it "a massacre of art". The pathos in the depiction of an infant clutching its dead mother's breast had an especially powerful effect, although this detail was condemned as unfit for art by Delacroix's critics. A viewing of the paintings of John Constable and the watercolour sketches and art of Richard Parkes Bonnington prompted Delacroix to make extensive, freely painted changes to the sky and distant landscape.
Greece Expiring on the Ruins of Missolonghi (1826), Musée des Beaux-Arts, BordeauxDelacroix produced a second painting in support of the Greeks in their war for independence, this time referring to the capture of Missolonghi by Turkish forces in 1825. With a restraint of palette appropriate to the allegory, Greece Expiring on the Ruins of Missolonghi displays a woman in Greek costume with her breast bared, arms half-raised in an imploring gesture before the horrible scene: the suicide of the Greeks, who chose to kill themselves and destroy their city rather than surrender to the Turks. A hand is seen at the bottom, the body having being crushed by rubble. The whole picture serves as a monument to the people of Missolonghi and to the idea of freedom against tyrannical rule. This event interested Delacroix not only for his sympathies with the Greeks, but also because the poet Byron, whom Delacroix greatly admired, had died there.
Death of Sardanapalus (1827), LouvreA trip to England in 1825 included visits to Thomas Lawrence and Richard Parkes Bonington, and the color and handling of English painting provided impetus for his only full-length portrait, the elegant Portrait of Louis-Auguste Schwiter, (1826-30). At roughly the same time, Delacroix was creating romantic works of numerous themes, many of which would continue to interest him for over thirty years. By 1825 he was producing lithographs illustrating Shakespeare, and soon thereafter lithographs and paintings from Goethe's Faust. Paintings such as The Combat of the Giaour and Hassan, (1826), and Woman with Parrot, (1827), introduced subjects of violence and sensuality which would prove to be recurrent.
These various romantic strands came together in the Death of Sardanapalus, (1827-8). Delacroix's painting of the death of the Assyrian king Sardanapalus shows an emotionally stirring scene alive with beautiful colours, exotic costumes and tragic events. The Death of Sardanapalus depicts the besieged king watching impassively as guards carry out his orders to kill his servants, concubines and animals. The literary source is a play by Byron, although the play does not specifically mention any massacre of concubines.
Sardanapalus' attitude of calm detachment is a familiar pose in Romantic imagery in this period in Europe. The painting, which was not exhibited again for many years afterward, has been regarded by some critics as a gruesome fantasy involving death and lust. Especially shocking is the struggle of a nude woman whose throat is about to be cut, a scene placed prominently in the foreground for maximum impact. However, the sensuous beauty and exotic colours of the composition make the picture appear pleasing and shocking at the same time.
A variety of Romantic interests were again synthesized in The Murder of the Bishop of Liège, (1829). It also borrowed from a literary source, this time Scott, and depicts a scene from the Middle Ages, that of the murder of Louis de Bourbon, Bishop of Liège amidst an orgy sponsored by his captor, William de la Marck. Set in an immense vaulted interior which Delacroix based on sketches of the Palais de Justice in Rouen and Westminster Hall, the drama plays out in chiaroscuro, organized around a brilliantly lit stretch of tablecloth. In 1855 a critic described the painting's vibrant handling as "Less finished than a painting, more finished than a sketch, The Murder of the Bishop of Liège was left by the painter at that supreme moment when one more stroke of the brush would have ruined everything".
Monument to Delacroix, at the Jardin du Luxembourg.At the sale of his work in 1864, 9,140 works were attributed to Delacroix, including 853 paintings, 1,525 pastels and water colours, 6,629 drawings, 109 lithographs, and over 60 sketch books. The number and quality of the drawings, whether done for constructive purposes or to capture a spontaneous movement, underscored his explanation, "Colour always occupies me, but drawing preoccupies me."
Delacroix 's tomb in the Père Lachaise Cemetery.Delacroix produced several fine self-portraits, and a number of memorable portraits which seem to have been done purely for pleasure, among which were the portrait of fellow artist Baron Schwiter, an inspired small oil of the violinist Nicolò Paganini, and a double portrait of his friends, the composer Frédéric Chopin and writer George Sand; the painting was cut after his death, but the individual portraits survive.
On occasion Delacroix painted pure landscapes (The Sea at Dieppe, 1852) and still-lifes (Still Life with Lobsters, 1826-7), both of which feature the virtuoso execution of his figure-based works. He is also well known for his Journals, in which he gave eloquent expression to his thoughts on art and contemporary life.
A generation of impressionists was inspired by Delacroix's work. Renoir and Manet made copies of his paintings, and Degas purchased the portrait of Baron Schwiter for his private collection. His painting at the church of St. Sulpice has been called the "finest mural painting of his time".
Contemporary Chinese artist Yue Minjun has created his own interpretation of Delacroix's painting 'Massacre of Chios', which retains the same name. Yue Minjun's painting was itself sold at Sotheby's for nearly $4.1 million in 2007.
Ferdinand-Victor-Eugène Delacroix est né le 26 avril 1798 à Charenton-Saint-Maurice (Seine), 2 rue de Paris (actuelle Grande Rue) et est mort de la tuberculose le 13 août 1863, au 6 rue de Furstemberg à Paris. Il repose au cimetière du Père-Lachaise (division 49). C'est un peintre majeur du romantisme en peinture, apparu au début du XIXe siècle, en...|
Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (* 26. April 1798 in Charenton-Saint-Maurice, einem Vorort von Paris &dagger 13. August 1863 in Paris) war einer der bedeutendsten französischen Maler der Romantik und gilt wegen der Lebhaftigkeit seiner Vorstellungskraft und wegen seines großzügigen Umgangs mit den Farben als Wegbereiter des Impressionismus. Er ...|
Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (Saint-Maurice, 26 aprile 1798 - Parigi, 13 agosto 1863) è stato un artista e pittore francese, considerato fin dall'inizio della sua carriera il principale esponente del movimento romantico del suo paese. La suggestiva pennellata tipica di Delacroix e il suo studio sugli effetti ottici ottenibili per mezzo del col...|
Ferdinand-Victor-Eugène Delacroix (Charenton-Saint-Maurice, Francia, 26 de abril de 1798 - París, 13 de agosto de 1863) fue un pintor francés. Familia Según varias hipótesis, Delacroix pudo ser hijo biológico del político Talleyrand, al que Delacroix se parece físicamente. Según esta teoría, su padre putativo habría quedado estéril a causa de una e...|
Фердинанд Виктор Эжен Делакруа (26 апреля 1798 - 13 августа 1863), французский художник-романтик рассматривать с самого начала своей карьеры в качестве лидера французской романтической школы. Делакруа использование выразительных мазки и исследование оптических эффектов цвета глубоко формы работы импрессионистов, а его страсть к экзотическим вдохнов...|
费迪南德维克多欧仁德拉克洛瓦（1798年4月26日 - 1863年8月13日）是法国浪漫主义画家，被视为法国的浪漫学校的领导者从一开始他的职业生涯。德拉克洛瓦的使用传神的笔触，他深刻地塑造了工作的印象派的色彩光学效应的研究，而他的异国情调的热情鼓舞的象征主义运动的艺术家。德拉克洛瓦的罚款，平版，说明莎士比亚，苏格兰作家沃尔特斯科特爵士和德国作家歌德的各项工作。 相比之下，他的主要对手安格尔的新古典主义的完美，他的灵感的鲁本斯的艺术和威尼斯的文艺复兴时期的画家德拉克洛瓦了，随之而来的重视和对颜色和运动，而不是清晰的轮廓，精心为蓝本的形式。戏剧和浪漫的内容特点，他的成熟的中心主题，并导致他不希腊和罗马艺术的经典机型，但在北非旅行在异国情调的搜索，。西奥多Géricault朋友和精神继承人，德拉克...|
Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (26 de abril de 1798 - 13 Agosto 1863) foi um artista romântico francês considerado desde o início de sua carreira como líder da escola francesa romântica. Delacroix uso de pinceladas expressivas e seu estudo sobre os efeitos ópticos da cor profundamente moldada a obra dos impressionistas, enquanto sua paixão pelo ...|
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