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Portfolio >> Hans Makart

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  • Hans Makart - Der Sieg des Lichts Über die Finsternis
  • Hans Makart - Gotische Grabkirche St. Michael, Seitenansicht
  • Hans Makart - Der Jubiläumszug. Der Gartenbau
  • Hans Makart - Faun und Nymph (Pan und Flora)
  • Hans Makart - Stilleben mit Rosen
  • Hans Makart - 'Sinnbild des fröhlichen Lebensgenusses' 1
  • Hans Makart - 'Sinnbild des fröhlichen Lebensgenusses'
  • Hans Makart - Der Tod der Kleopatra
  • Hans Makart - Der Sommernachstraum, Entwurf zur Dekoration eines Raumes in der Hermesvilla
  • Hans Makart - Die Niljagd der Kleopatra
  • Hans Makart - Der Triumph der Ariadne
  • Hans Makart - Kinderbild
  • Hans Makart - Moderne Amoretten
  • Hans Makart - Entwürfe für Einen Palast, Rückseit und (aufgeklebter) Grundriss
  • Hans Makart - Alegorie auf die Lebenslust
  • Hans Makart - Dora Fournier-Gabillon
  • Hans Makart - Hanna Klinkosch
  • Hans Makart - Karoline Gomperz
  • Hans Makart - Helene Racowitza as Walküre
  • Hans Makart - Abundantia - The Gifts of the Earth
  • Hans Makart - Entwürfe für Einen Palast, Fassade
  • Hans Makart - Opferszene
  • Hans Makart - Abundantia - The Gifts of the Sea
  • Hans Makart - Der Jubiläumszug. Festwagen der Jagd
  • Hans Makart - Ring des Nibelungen (Entwurf)
  • Hans Makart - The Dream after the Ball
  • Hans Makart - Venedig Huldigt Caterina Cornaro
  • Hans Makart - Der Jubiläumszug. Die Falkenjagd
  • Hans Makart - Die Falknerin
 
All 61 Artworks from Hans Makart





Hans Makart (May 28, 1840 - October 3, 1884) was a 19th century Austrian academic history painter, designer, and decorator; most well known for his influence on Gustav Klimt and other Austrian artists, but in his own era considered an important artist himself and was a celebrity figure in the high culture of Vienna, attended with almost cult-like adulation.

Makart was the son of a chamberlain at the Mirabell Palace, born in the former residence of the prince-archbishops of Salzburg. Initially, he received his training in painting at the Vienna Academy between 1850 and 1851 from Johann Fischbach. While in the Academy, German art was under the rule of a classicism, which was entirely intellectual and academic—clear and precise drawing, sculpturesque modelling, and pictorial erudition were esteemed above all. Makart, who was a poor draughtsman, but who had a passionate and sensual love of color, was impatient to escape the routine of art school drawing. For his fortune, he was found by his instructors to be devoid of all talent and forced to leave the Vienna Academy.

He went to Munich, and after two years of independent study attracted the attention of Karl Theodor von Piloty, under whose guidance, between 1861 and 1865 he developed his painting style. During these years, Makart also travelled to London, Paris and Rome to further his studies. The first picture he painted under Piloty, Lavoisier in Prison, though it was considered timid and conventional, attracted attention by its sense of color.

In his next work, The Knight and the Water Nymphs, he first displayed the decorative qualities to which he afterwards sacrificed everything else in his work. His fame became established in the next year, with two works, Modern Amoretti and The Plague in Florence. His painting Romeo and Juliet was soon after bought by the Austrian emperor for the Vienna Museum, and Makart was invited to come to Vienna by the aristocracy.

The prince Von Hohenlohe provided Makart with an old foundry at the Gusshausstraße 25 to use as a studio. He gradually turned it into an impressive place full of sculptures, flowers, musical instruments, requisites and jewellery that he used to create classical settings for his portraits, mainly of women. Eventually his studio looked like a salon and became a social meeting point in Vienna. Cosima Wagner described it as a "wonder of decorative beauty, a sublime lumber-room". His luxurious studio served as a model for a great many upper middle-class living rooms.

The opulent, semi-public spaces of the Makart atelier were the scene of a recurring rendezvous between the artist and his public. The artist became the mediator between different levels of society: he created a socially ambiguous sphere in which nobility and bourgeoisie could encounter one another in mutual veneration of the master, and aestheticized the burgeoning self-awareness of the bourgeoisie by means of historical models drawn from the world of the aristocracy. In this way, an artist like Makart lived out the image that high society had created of him. Makart is considered by many as being the first art star, referred to by contemporaries an "artist prince" (Malerfürst) in the tradition of Rubens.

Makart became the acknowledged leader of the artistic life of the Vienna, which in the 1870s passed through a period of feverish activity, the chief results of which are the sumptuously decorated public buildings of the Ringstraße. He not only practised painting, but was also an interior designer, costume designer, furniture designer, and decorator, and his work decorated most of the public spaces of the era. His work engendered the term "Makartstil", or "Makart style", which completely characterized the era.

In 1879, Makart had designed a pageant organised to celebrate the Silver Wedding Anniversary of the Imperial couple, emperor Franz Josef and his wife Elisabeth of Bavaria —he designed, single-handed, the costumes, scenic setting, and triumphal cars. This became known as the "Makart-parade", and had given the people of Vienna the chance to dress up in historical costumes and be transported back into the past for a few hours. At the head of the parade was a float for artists, led by Makart on a white horse. His festivals became an institution in Vienna which lasted up until the 1960s. In the same year as the first parade he became a Professor at the Vienna Academy.

Makart's painting The Entry of Charles V into Antwerp caused some controversy, because Charles V was depicted arriving in a procession surrounded by nude virgins; the offense was the mistaken idea that the nudes had no place in the modern scene. In the United States, the painting fell under the proscription of Anthony Comstock, which secured Makart's fame there. The American public desired at once to see what Comstock was persecuting, so they could tell whether he was acting correctly or in error.

In 1882 emperor Franz Josef ordered the building of the Villa Hermes at Lainz (near Vienna) for his empress and specified the bedroom decoration to be inspired from Shakespeare's Midsummernight's Dream. Makart designed for him a fascinating dreamworld that still exists at the Villa Hermes as a large painting (1882). Unfortunately his design was never executed after his early death in 1884. His collection of antiques and art consisted of 1083 pieces and was put up for auction by art-dealer H.O. Miethke.

Salzburg's Makart Square, or Makartplatz, was named after the painter.

The "Makartstil", which determined the culture of an entire era in Vienna, was an aestheticism the likes of which hadn't been seen before him and has not been replicated to this day. Called the "magician of colors", he painted in brilliant colors and fluid forms, which placed the design and the aesthetic of the work before all else. Often to heighten the strength of his colors he introduced asphalt into his paint, which has led to some deterioration in his paintings over the years. The paintings were usually large-scale and theatrical productions of historical motifs. Works such as The Papal Election reveal Makart's skill in the bold use of color to convey drama as well as his later developed virtuoso draughtsmanship.

Makart was deeply interested in the interaction of all the visual arts and thus in the implementation of the idea of the "total work of art" which dominated discussions on the arts in the 19th century. This was the ideal which he realised in magnificent festivities which he organised and centred around himself. The 1879 Makart-parade was the culmination of these endeavors. Makart was also a friend of the composer Richard Wagner, and it can be argued that the two developed the same concepts and stylistic tendencies in their differing art forms: a concern for embedding motifs of history and mythology in a framework of aestheticism, making their respective works historical pageants.

Makart's work, like those of other academic artist's of the time, consisted of allegorical painting and history painting as seen in Catherina Carnaro, Dianas Hunt, The Entry of Charles V into Antwerp, Abundantia, Spring, Summer, The Death of Cleopatra, The Five Senses, and Bacchus and Ariadne. He was considered the Austrian rival to the French William-Adolphe Bouguereau. Within Austria, his nearest competitor was considered to be Hans Canon, and he was associated with the sculptor Viktor Tilgner, who travelled with him to Italy.

Aside from his clear influence on the academic art and high culture of Vienna at the time, Makart also influenced a range of painters and decorators who followed him, including many who rebelled against his style—the most notable being Gustav Klimt, who is said to have idolized him. Klimt's early style is based in historicism and has clear similarities to Makart's paintings. The entire decorative focus of Jugendstil, the Austrian Art Nouveau of which Klimt was a part, arose in an environment in which Makart had put the decorative aspects of art in the forefront. Some have also suggested that primacy of sexual symbolism in Jugendstil artworks also have an influence from the sensuality pushed in many of Makart's paintings.

[Biography - Hans Makart - 9Ko]
Hans Makart (28 mai 1840 - Octobre 3, 1884) était un peintre autrichien du 19e siècle l'histoire académique, designer et décorateur plus connu pour son influence sur Gustav Klimt et d'autres artistes autrichiens, mais dans son époque considéré comme un artiste important lui-même et était un personnage célèbre dans la haute culture de Vienne, ont p...
[Biography - Hans Makart - 12Ko]
Hans Makart (28. Mai 1840 - 3. Oktober 1884) war ein 19. Jahrhundert österreichischen akademischen Geschichte Maler, Designer und Dekorateur, die meisten auch für seinen Einfluss auf Gustav Klimt und anderen österreichischen Künstlern bekannt, aber in seiner eigenen Zeit als wichtiger Künstler sich und wurde eine Berühmtheit Figur in der Hochkultur...
[Biography - Hans Makart - 10Ko]
Hans Makart (28 maggio 1840 - 3 Ottobre 1884) è stato un 19 ° secolo pittore austriaco storia accademica, designer e decoratore, più noto per la sua influenza su Gustav Klimt e di altri artisti austriaci, ma nella sua epoca considerato un artista importante se stesso e fu una figura celebrità nella cultura alta di Vienna, ha partecipato con adu...
[Biography - Hans Makart - 20Ko]
Hans Makart (mayo 28, 1840-octubre 3, 1884) fue un pintor austríaco siglo 19 la historia académica, diseñador y decorador, más conocido por su influencia sobre Gustav Klimt y otros artistas de Austria, pero en su propia era considerado un importante artista sí mismo y era una figura célebre en la alta cultura de Viena, al que asistieron con la adul...
[Biography - Hans Makart - 11Ko]
Ханс Макарта (28 мая 1840 - 3 октября 1884) был 19-го века австрийским академического художника истории, дизайнер, и декоратор, самым известным за его влияние на Густава Климта и других австрийских художников, но в его собственной эпохи считается важным художником себя и был знаменитостью фигурой в высокой культуре Вене, приняли участие почти культ...
[Biography - Hans Makart - 9Ko]
汉斯马卡特(5月28日,1840年 - 1884年10月3日)是一个19世纪的奥地利学术史的画家,设计师,和装饰 他克林姆和其他奥地利艺术家的影响,但在他自己的时代考虑的一个重要的艺术家自己和在维也纳的高文化名人的身影,几乎邪教般的崇拜之情出席。 马卡特是一个张伯伦在米拉贝尔宫的儿子,出生在萨尔茨堡的王子大主教的故居。起初,他收到他的绘画训练,1850年和1851年之间在维也纳艺术学院从约翰菲施巴赫。虽然德国艺术学院,一个古典主义的统治下,这是完全知识产权和学术清晰和准确的绘图,sculpturesque造型和图案的博学上述所有尊敬。马卡特,他是一个贫穷的绘图员,而是一个充满激情的色彩和感性的爱情,是不耐烦逃跑的艺术学校绘画的日常。他的财富,他发现他的导师,所有人才缺乏,被迫离开维也纳学院。...
[Biography - Hans Makart - 4Ko]
Hans Makart (28 de maio de 1840 - 03 de outubro de 1884) foi um pintor do século 19 a história austríaca acadêmica, designer e decorador, a maioria bem conhecido por sua influência sobre Gustav Klimt e outros artistas da áustria, mas em sua própria era considerado um artista importante si mesmo e era uma figura da celebridade na alta cultura de Vie...
[Biography - Hans Makart - 11Ko]
ハンスマカルト(1840年5月28日 - 1884年10月3日)はオーストリアの学術的歴史画家、デザイナー、およびデコレータ19世紀だった 最もよくグスタフクリムトと他のオーストリアの芸術家に彼の影響のために知られているが、彼自身の時代に重要な作家と見なさ彼自身とはほとんどカルトのようなお世辞で出席した、ウィーンの高い文化の有名人の人物だった。 マカルトは、ザルツブルクの王子 - 大司教の邸宅で生まれたミラベル宮殿でのチェンバレンの息子だった。当初、彼はヨハンフィッシュバッハから1850年と1851年の間にウィーンアカデミーで絵画の彼の訓練を受けた。アカデミーにいる間、ドイツの芸術は完全に知的であり、学術的、明確かつ正確な図面、彫刻のモデリング、そして絵の博学はすべて上記の尊敬された古典主義...
[Biography - Hans Makart - 5Ko]
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